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 by awuehr on 11-10-2008 in Tips & Tricks by Village Idiot on 11-04-2008 in Classes & Objects by codefreek on 10-23-2008 in Basic by wiifanatic on 09-12-2008 in Security & Permissions by drewbee on 07-03-2008 in Tips & Tricks
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 A Algorithm An algorithm is a method or process to solve a particular problem Array An array is a collection of items, encapsulated into a single, neat unit. Arrays are generally used to keep closely related items together; a list of colours, names, etc.. Usage is covered in detail in the PHP manual: http://php.net/types.array Examples PHP Code: ``` \$colors = array('red', 'blue', 'green', 'yellow'); echo \$colors[2]; // green \$person = array('name' => 'Peter', 'age' => '23', 'location' => 'Scotland'); echo \$person['name']; // Peter  ``` Assignment You assign a value to a variable. Assignments are done using a single equals sign. For example - \$myVar = 5 - here you are assigning the value of 5 to \$myVar
 B Block A block, or code block, is the PHP code between 2 curly braces Boolean A boolean is a data type that can only equal either TRUE or FALSE
 C Class A class is an entity that encapsulates properties and methods. A class is made of properties (variables) and methods (functions), and can also contain class constants. More can be found here: http://uk.php.net/class Class Constant Class constants are set within a class and can only be accessed by the class they were set in. They are created a little differently from a typical constant, but share the same characteristics: cannot be unset, changed, should be uppercase, underscore instead of a space. Class constants are defined like so: php Code: `const MY_CONSTANT = 'My Data';` Comments Comments make your PHP script easier to read. You can create single line comments by placing // at the begining of the line, or multiline comments by starting the comment block with /* and ending it with */ Comparison When you compare two values or variables. Straight comparisons are done using two equal signs. For example - if (\$myVar == \$otherVar) - or - if (\$myVar < \$otherVar) Condition A condition is used to control loops and is generally a Boolean value Constant A constant is a way of storing a text item or number that cannot change. Constants cannot be unset or modified and are used for such things as database credentials. A typical constant may be created like so: php Code: `define('MY_CONSTANT', 'My Data');` Constants should always be upper cased and contain underscores instead of spaces.
 D Declaration A declaration is when you declare your variables and their types at the top of your script / class Do While The same as while, accept it executes the code once before checking the condition. Good for code you know needs to be used at least once or more. Examples [php] do { //do stuff here } while(\$condition == true); Note See the while loop for further explanation on the loop.
 E Entity An entity (UML Class) is any "thing" about which facts or details can be stored; for example, physical existence, person, object or an event. Expression An expression is any code that has a value. For example: "\$a == \$b" or "\$a - \$b"
 F For A type of loop designed for looping through code when you know how many times you want to go though it. Examples PHP Code: ``` for(\$i=0;\$i<8;\$i++) {     echo "I have looped though \$i times"; }  ``` Foreach Foreach is a way to loop over elements in an array. Examples: Taken from http://us.php.net/foreach PHP Code: ``` ``` Formatting This generally refers to the layout and readabilty of your PHP code. Good formatting includes correctly indented blocks and proper use of whitespace Function A function is a reuseable block of code that you can run as required. A function definition would look something like: PHP Code: ``` function myFunction() {     // function content here }  ``` You would then run your custom function as you would a normal function: PHP Code: ``` myFunction();  ``` In Object-Orientated Programming, functions are also known as Methods.
 L Loop A loop will repeat a block of code until you tell it to stop. Types of loops include: For, While, Foreach, Do Loops See For, while, Do While and Foreach.
 N Namespace In the PHP world, namespaces are deigned to solve two problems that authors of libraries, and applications encounter when creating re-usable code elements such as classes or functions: 1. Name collisions between the code you create. 2. Ability to alias Extra_Long_Names designed to alleviate the first problem, improving readability of source code. PHP Namespaces provide a way in which to group related classes, functions and constants. Here is an example of namespace syntax in PHP: PHP Code: ``` # Create our namespace. namespace Main; class App {     public function test() {         return __METHOD__;     } } # Alias our namespace, and class to "MA" for readability use MainApp as MA; # Create new instance of our object "App" \$obj = new MA(); # The following line will output Main\App::test echo \$obj->test();  ``` Nesting Nesting is to put code inside of other code. Most commonly used in loops and if statements - for example, you could next an if() statement inside of another if() statement.
 O Object Objects are class instances, they are initialized by the class constructor of an object using the keyword "new": \$object = new stdClass(); Operators In PHP, examples of operators would be +, -, *, /, =, ==, and so on. Operators are generally used in comparisons and arithmetic
 S Syntax Syntax in PHP refers to the "grammer" used. And example of PHP syntax could be that each line must end in a semi-colon
 T Ternary Operator This is a very useful technique for assigning a value to a variable while evaluating a statement in the declaration. Remeber that the result of the statement will be the value assigned to the variable. PHP Code: ``` \$a = false; \$foo = \$a == false? "Berry" : "Fruit"; print (\$foo); // will output: "Berry" // this is the same thing as doing: \$a = false; \$foo = null; //you would have to declare the variable here first if register_globals is off if (\$a == false) {     \$foo = "Berry"; } else {     \$foo = "Fruit"; } print (\$foo); // again, outputs: "Berry"  ``` Click Here For More Information Types Types of variables - for example, int, string, float, etc
 V Variable A variable is simply a place to store data. For example, if you wanted to store a phone number you could do so using a variable. In PHP all variables begin with a dollar sign (\$) Variables can hold different types of data, for example, numbers, objects and strings. However, as PHP is a loosely typed language, variables data types do not need to be explicitly declared.
 W While A loop designed for looping though code while a condition is true instead of a known amount of times. Be careful with this loop, it is easy to make it endless. Examples: PHP Code: ``` while(\$condition == true) {     //do stuff here }  ``` Note The condition does not have to be literally true, it will loop on whatever the condition is in the parameters.

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